Etienne Delay, Simon Maraud
Questioning capitalistic power structures: a way to reconnect stakeholders with the land?
- OHMI Téssékéré
21-23/9 2017, Reggio Emilia, Italie
1st International Conference of Anarchist Geographies and Geographers (ICAGG) – Geography, social change and antiauthoritarian practices
From our different research fields, by comparing the relationships between local populations and their territory, we noted some similarities. This paper aims to analyze the relationship between local or indigenous stakeholders and their territory. We thus wondered on the possibilities to create a common framework to represent social dynamics of human groups regarding their management of natural resources. We focus on the evolution of collective behaviors in space and time and process of domination which tend to create a gap between human and their land. Capitalistic colonialism has considerably changed the territorial visions and practices of the people. Philosophical conception of the natural philosophy has shifted from the dependence on the land and resources to a domination of Nature (Gregory, 2001; Kaika 2005; Linton 2010). New centralized power structures appeared legitimizing and promoting the implementation of capitalistic lecture of the territory. In the South of France, the farmers have modified their agricultural practices since the creation of Vinça Dam; in Northern Sweden (or Swedish Sápmi), the Sami are fighting to be part of the management of their ancestral land; The Eeyou Istchee Cree, in Quebec, are now in possession of a capital by integrating neoliberal development; in Senegal, the Peuls are experiencing the impacts of sedentarization because of the construction of bore wholes by the State. In order to highlight these mechanisms in our four study cases, we tried to create a framework called TerritOry-Resources-Societal-Organization (TORSO). From anarchist authors, as Kropotkin, Bookchin and MacDonald, we tried to identify different spatio-temporal trajectories of societal reorganization regarding the management of resources. Then, it is possible to understand how the need of resource will influence the social relationships and how it evolves in time depending on the stakeholders in power. Determining the management structures trajectories and their dynamic evolutions doesn’t mean to create a universal law for a societal trend. The idea is to decode the elements which make the shift from a form of organization to another for a structure, and that we can amplify or counteract.